In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is a four-stage an assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedure. IVF is the process of fertilization by extracting eggs, retrieving a sperm sample, and then manually combing an egg and sperm in a laboratory dish. The embryo(s) is then transferred to the uterus. The best candidates for IVF are women with damaged fallopian tubes.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a highly sophisticated technique for injecting one single sperm into an egg using microscopic and micromanipulation instruments. During a traditional cycle of IVF, the sperm and eggs are introduced together in a cultured medium. Therefore, the ICSI procedure helps to successfully fertilize eggs and monitor the quality. It’s widely used for men with low sperm count, low motility or a high number of abnormal sperm. ICSI has been proven to be highly successful remedy to achieve a high rate of fertilization and normal embryo development.
Embryo transfer is a simple procedure in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. It follows about 5 days after the IVF and allows a longer time for the embryo to develop in the laboratory to reach the Blastocyst stage, which is the natural embryonic stage for implantation in the uterus. In the embryo transfer process it’s significantly improve the chances of achieving a pregnancy by transferring two or more embryos.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
PGD is a technique which involves removing a cell from an IVF embryo to test it for a specific genetic condition (cystic fibrosis, for example) before transferring the embryo to the uterus.
Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS)
PGS is a technique for testing for overall chromosomal normalcy in embryos (Down’s Syndrome, for example). PGS is not looking for a specific disease diagnosis – it is screening the embryo for normal chromosome copy number.